respond to each classmates article in one or two paragraphs.


There are 3 discussion articles written by classmates. please respond to each classmates article in one or two paragraphs.

Robin Ledford

BIO 100a: Discussion wk 2

Black holes have been one of space’s biggest mysteries. The gravitational pull of black holes is impossible to escape, even to the speed of light. Scientists have found “super big” or “super small” black holes but have yet to find black holes in the medium range. However, in a recent study, scientists have found that some black holes could release matter that has been pulled into its cavity. A group of scientists in Livermore National Laboratory in California believe that a medium sized black hole could bring back collapsed stars (dead stars).

The scientists conducted a simulation on a computer to test their theories on dead stars and mid-range black holes. During their study, they found that a dead star would spark back up from the force of the gravitational pull. The star would create more iron and calcium as it inched closer. If the conditions are right with star alignment and near a mid-range black hole, Earth’s satellites would be able to pick up the electromagnetic waves to determine where this illusive black hole is.

Hickok, K. (2018 November 1). Black holes can raise the cosmic dead. Live Science. Retrieved from

Taylor Tesch

Protein and Gut Microbes


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There are positive and negative aspects of bacteria regarding living organisms, but the concept of controlling the growth of gut microbes is surfacing. Protein contains nitrogen, and microbial biologists are discovering that by manipulating the types and amounts of gut bacteria that living organisms receive, health can be improved overall (Saey, par. 4). Microbial ecologist Aspen Reese from Duke University mentions that in most ecosystems, nitrogen is an essential building material in biological molecules. She then reasoned that perhaps bacteria in the intestines are starving for nitrogen (Reese, 2018).

Following the discovery of reducing protein intake, they administered antibiotics to mice with high protein intake. After doing so, they found that the nitrogen in the body decreased and the mice stopped secreting as much mucus during the experiment. Another microbe researcher named Katrine Whiteson mentioned that people should not change their diets based on one study alone, but increasing a plant and fiber based diet would aid in their health (Whiteson, 2018). So overall, protein may potentially increase the amount of microbes thriving in the gut, but it is dangerous to conduct a drastic diet change, but generally an increase in plant and fiber helps in health.


A.T. Reese et al. Microbial nitrogen limitation in the mammalian large intestine. Nature Microbiology. Published online October 29, 2018. doi:10.1038/s41564-018-0267-7.

Saey, T. H. (2018). Eating less protein may help curb gut bacteria’s growth. Retrieved , from

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20 hours ago

Monica Belton

Drug-Resistant Staph


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I was intrigued by the article Drug-Resistant Staph a Widespread Threat, by Steven Reinberg. He states the drug-resistant staph infection, can be potentially deadly, is becoming more of a concern. Methicillin – a resistant Staphylococcus aureus, also known as MRSA, is one of the most common infections to contract while at the hospital. MRSA infections are responsible for 19,000 deaths and 94,000 life-threatening illnesses each year here in the U.S. Per the Center for Disease Control, another type of MRSA that is a threatening health issue is Invasive MRSA.

A study was done by Dr. R. Monina Klevens, an epidemiologist, the data from Active Bacterial Core surveillance/ Emerging Infections Program in July 2004, estimated an increase of MRSA infection, there were an alarming 8,987 cases of invasive MRSA, most that were found in community health care settings, the others in hospitals and health care facilities.

It is evident with these high numbers that more effort needs to be made, especially in health care centers. Prevention can begin by people protecting themselves by washing their hands, keeping wounds covered and maintaining good hygiene. Antibiotics do not always need to be used. Your doctor can drain it, depending on the severity. MRSA is spread from person to person. In hospitals, it is important to ensure the medical staff has washed their hands prior to touching a patient or any equipment that attaches to the patient. Some infections have been reported at the school level. “Most of these are mild infections”, says Nicole Coffin, a spokeswoman at the U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention.

Reinberg, Steven. “Drug-Resistant Staph a Widespread Threat.”, Live Science, 7 Oct. 2007.Reinberg, Steven. “Drug-Resistant Staph a Widespread Threat.”, Live Science, 7 Oct. 2007.

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