REVIEW THE HISTORICAL FOUNDATIONS OF CURRICULUM AND THEN DISCUSS TWO MOVEMENTS THAT HAD A SIGNIFICANT IMPACT ON HIGH SCHOOL CURRICULUM IN THE 1800S AND CONTINUE TO HAVE AN IMPACT TODAY. SPECULATE ON THE REASONS THE MOVEMENTS HAD AND CONTINUE TO HAVE AN IMPACT.
Review the historical foundations of curriculum and then discuss two movements that had a significant impact on high school curriculum in the 1800s and continue to have an impact today. Speculate on the reasons the movements had and continue to have an impact. Review Table 3.4 “Overview of Curriculum Theorists, 1918—present.” Considering that the textbook claimed that Tyler “…summed up the best principles of curriculum making for the first half of the 20th century,” discuss two theorists that you believe have made a significant contribution to curriculum development. Provide reasons and examples to support your response.57 3 Learning Outcomes After reading this chapter, you should be able to 1. Identify the differences between the various types of colonial schools and describe some European influences 2. Explain how democratic ideas contributed to the rise of public schooling during the national period 3. Describe the enduring contributions made by the 19th century European educators Pestalozzi, Froebel, Herbart, and Spencer 4. Explain how education evolved to meet the needs of the masses during the rise of universal education 5. Discuss the transition from the traditional, standardized curriculum to the modern curriculum 6. Explain the influence that behaviorism and scientific principles had on curriculum in the early to mid-1900s A knowledge of curriculum’s history provides guidance for today’s curriculum makers. We begin our discussion with the colonial period and proceed through the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries. Most of our discussion focuses on the past 100 years. The Colonial Period: 1642–1776 Curriculum’s historical foundations are largely rooted in the educational experiences of colonial Massachusetts. Massachusetts was settled mainly by Puritans, who adhered to strict theological principles. The first New England schools were closely tied to the Puritan church. According to educational historians, a school’s primary purpose was to teach children to read the scriptures and notices of civil affairs.1 Reading was the most important subject, followed by writing and spelling, which were needed for understanding the catechism and common law. Since colonial days, therefore, reading and related language skills have been basic to American education and the elementary school curriculum. Historical Foundations of Curriculum M03_ORMS0354_07_SE_C03.indd 57 10/19/15 8:23 AM Curriculum: Foundations, Principles, and Issues, Seventh Edition, by Allan C. Ornstein and Francis P. Hunkins. Published by Pearson. Copyright © 2017 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Pearson Custom Edition. 58 ❖ Chapter 3 Historical Foundations of Curriculum Three Colonial Regions Schools in colonial Massachusetts derived from two sources: (1) 1642 legislation, which required parents and guardians to ensure that children could read and understand the principles of religion and the laws of the Commonwealth; and (2) the “Old Deluder Satan” Act of 1647, which required every town of 50 or more families to appoint a reading and writing teacher. Towns of 100 or more families were to employ a teacher of Latin so that students could be prepared to enter Harvard College.2 Except for Rhode Island, the other New England colonies followed Massachusetts’s example. These early laws reveal how important education was to the Puritan settlers. Some historians consider these laws to be the roots of U.S. school law and the public school movement. The Puritans valued literacy partly as a way of preventing the formation of a large underclass, such as existed in England and other parts of Europe.
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